Vice President Harris on Wednesday urged Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders to turn their pain, after a year marked by a surge of racially motivated attacks, into power.
She also praised the passage of legislation to address the increase in hate crimes and violence against Asian Americans during the coronavirus pandemic.
"As a member of this community, I share in that outrage and that grief," Harris said. "And I believe we have an opportunity now to turn that pain into action. To turn that pain, that righteous anger, because of the injustice of it, we have an opportunity to turn that into power."
Harris — a daughter of immigrants from India and Jamaica, and the first vice president of Asian descent — was the keynote speaker for the inaugural AAPI Virtual Unity Summit hosted by the AAPI Victory Alliance on Wednesday evening.
AAPI voter turnout jumped in 2020
After a year in which they were galvanized by the racially motivated attacks, Asian Americans are seeking — and wielding — more political power.
Asian Americans are the fastest-growing segment of eligible voters, according to the Pew Research Center.
And while historically they have had some of the lowest turnout levels nationally, in 2020 voter turnout for Asian Americans was higher than it has ever been.
An analysis of the U.S. Current Population Survey from AAPI Data found that turnout among Asian American citizens grew from 49% in 2016 to 60% in 2020. Among Pacific Islanders, turnout increased from 41% in 2016 to 55% in 2020.
According to the Census Bureau, about 67% of all eligible voters cast ballots in 2020.
Experts point to a number of reasons for the increase in Asian American turnout. Some Democrats point to former President Donald Trump's handling of the coronavirus pandemic, including his repeated references to the "China virus," which repelled many voters. Some cite the impact of Harris' presence on the Democratic ticket. But organizers and experts also point to years of local outreach.
"It's important to pay attention both to short-term campaign dynamics that help increase voter turnout because of increased investments by partisan organizations, but it's also important to acknowledge that those short-term increases build on a foundation of long-term investments in community organizing, naturalization, voter registration and voter education," Ramakrishnan said.
Data suggests that the majority of Asian voters cast ballots for then-candidate Joe Biden in the 2020 general election, Ramakrishnan said. Strong turnout among Asian Americans played a decisive role in swinging Georgia to Democrats for the first time since 1992. And analysts say that demographic change also played a role in places like Arizona, Michigan and Nevada.
The U.S. Asian electorate is also an incredibly diverse group, and there are meaningful differences among origin groups. Indian Americans, for example are more likely to be Democrats than other Asian origin groups, according to the Pew Research Center, while Vietnamese Americans are more likely to identify as Republicans.
Ramakrishnan said there was a stark increase in voting among second-generation immigrants, who were born in the United States to immigrant parents.
"This second generation is coming of political age and especially during this moment of COVID and the increase in anti-Asian racism and hate incidents, you are seeing a kind of political consciousness that's forming that will likely last a generation," he said. "So I think looking ahead, we're going to see a lot more civic engagement, political activism among the younger Asian American population, and especially given the circumstances of the past year."
Inspired to run and leading by example
Alongside the increased turnout, more Asian Americans are running for office than ever before. They include Andrew Yang, who ran for president in 2020 and is now running for mayor of New York City, and Michelle Wu, who is running to be the mayor of Boston.
Ramakrishnan and others say there are a variety of reasons why the number of Asian American political candidates has been on the rise, though he and other say there is still a long way to go. A recent report from the Reflective Democracy Campaign found that Asian American and Pacific Islander elected officials make up just 0.9% of elected leaders in the U.S.
Madalene Mielke, president of the Asian Pacific Institute for Congressional Studies, says that part of the reason there have been fewer Asian elected officials is due to historic barriers.
"There wasn't a lot of Asian Americans running in the past because when you think about immigration, being U.S. citizens, having that opportunity to actually be a part of that electorate, there have been many public policies in the past that have excluded Asian Americans," Mielke said. "You start to think about how these types of public policies discriminated and excluded the community itself and how the community then basically had to turn around and catch up."
Mielke said that Asian Americans seeking office also must confront cultural biases, as well as the challenge of building fundraising networks.
Ramakrishnan pointed out that when Asian candidates run for office and win, it encourages other potential candidates to come off the sidelines and either run themselves or become donors.
"Given the success of Kamala Harris as the highest-ranking Asian American elected official, as well as senators and members of Congress that have done very well over the last decade, we will likely see many more Asian Americans running for office in the future inspired by those examples," he said.
STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
When last year's election results showed Georgia to be a purple state - a state that voted for Joe Biden, a state that elected two Democratic senators - Asian American voters were part of that picture. They are a growing part of a vital state's electorate. And that is one sign of the rising political influence of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, which NPR political reporter Juana Summers has been following. Good morning.
JUANA SUMMERS, BYLINE: Morning.
INSKEEP: How is this part of the electorate changing?
SUMMERS: Well, Asian Americans are the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. electorate, and right now we are seeing something of a political awakening. This community has experienced a dramatic spike in the number of racially motivated attacks in the past year during this pandemic, which has had a galvanizing effect. That is something that Vice President Kamala Harris touched on when she spoke at a virtual event for the AAPI Victory Alliance last night.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)
KAMALA HARRIS: As a member of this community, I share in that outrage and grief. And I believe we have an opportunity now to turn that pain into action.
SUMMERS: Harris also talked about a bill that President Biden will sign today intended to address that increase in hate crimes and violence against Asian Americans.
INSKEEP: Well, what can you tell us about the political power of Asian Americans right now?
SUMMERS: So I spoke with Karthick Ramakrishnan, who is the director of AAPI Data, and his analysis of Census Bureau data shows that turnout among Asian Americans shot up from 49% in 2016 to 60% in 2020. And among Pacific Islanders, there was a jump from 41% in 2016 to 55% in 2020. Now, those numbers are lower overall - the national turnout in the last election - but they were the biggest increases among any racial or ethnic group. And in 2020, as you point out, that was to the benefit of then-candidate Joe Biden and Democrats. Now, I asked Ramakrishnan to explain to me why this turnout surge may have happened. He said there are a slew of reasons, but one important thing that he did point to is a sharp increase in voting among the second generation who were born in the United States to immigrant parents.
KARTHICK RAMAKRISHNAN: This second generation is coming of political age. And especially during this moment of COVID and the increase in anti-Asian racism and hate incidents, you are seeing a kind of political consciousness that's forming that will likely last a generation.
SUMMERS: And that, he told me, can tell you a lot about what this participation might look like in the future.
INSKEEP: Although I'm remembering a couple of years ago we did a profile of a Chinese American state legislator, and part of the notable fact of that - it's just that she was rare. There are not that many Asian American elected officials.
SUMMERS: And Steve, that is still true. The Reflective Democracy Campaign did a report recently. It found that Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders make up less than 1% of elected leaders. When you look at all levels of government, Asians now make up about 7% of the nation's overall population. Now, that being said, we do know that more Asian Americans are running for office now than ever before, including folks like Andrew Yang, who ran for president in 2020, now running to be the mayor of New York. Michelle Wu is running to be the mayor of Boston. And there have been all these groups that have sprung up that are working to recruit potential candidates and breaks down some of these barriers they face when considering whether or not to seek office.
INSKEEP: That's NPR's Juana Summers. Thanks, as always, for your reporting.
SUMMERS: You're welcome. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.